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an illustration of a wallet

Wallet Account eXperiments

Helping wallets, dapps, and SDKs shine.

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Why WAX (formerly BLS Wallet)

Using cryptographic primitives in a meaningful way can be as hard as finding them in the first place. Research and development of such primitives is even harder. WAX integrates components developed by PSE, to empower wallets, dapps and SDKs to readily improve the experience of Ethereum account-holders.

For example, cheaper layer-2 transactions are unlocked via use of proven signature schemes (BLS). Or better and safer UX with choices in verification methods using zero-knowledge proofs (coming soon). These advantages can be brought into more products without each entity doing their own R&D.

How WAX works

Cheaper transactions (and smart recovery) were achieved by leveraging BLS Signature aggregation via: bespoke smart contracts, client code, and a demo wallet extension (formerly ‘BLS Wallet’). This was integrated as a prototype into a popular L2 network.

With the advent of a new Account Abstraction standard (ERC4337), and development of novel zk verification methods (from PSE), the next version of smart contracts builds from a familiar/proven contract foundation. On top of this we will be adding new verification components to the existing BLS one, and showcasing integrations for better ux for Ethereum account holders. These Wallet Account eXperiments are WAX.

At a higher level WAX components are brought together in an easy-to-use node module, EthDK.

Key Features


Reduce transaction fees

The BLS Wallet module enables wallets to sign transactions with BLS Signatures. Aggregating them lowers gas fees for supporting wallets, and their users of layer 2 dApps.


Social key recovery

Recover a BLS contract wallet via a nominated Ethereum address. This can be a multisig address, effectively enabling social recovery.


Smooth, multi-action UX

Boost conversion and engagement in your dApp with simpler transactions - no more pestering users with multiple prompts to sign transactions one-by-one.


Gasless transactions

Further simplify user onboarding with dApp-sponsored transactions. Users sign their dApp actions; dApps include a payment to tx.origin to reward those that pay the gas.


Wallet upgradeability

Using the TransparentProxy method, individual wallets can upgrade their implementation. Similarly, a wallet can nominate a new gateway to use to process its transactions. Full wallet upgradability, 100% user-controlled.

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Meet the team

Headshot of WAX team member, Jacob Caban-Tomski
Jacob Caban-TomskiSoftware Developer
Headshot of WAX team member, Blake Duncan
Blake DuncanSoftware Developer
Headshot of WAX team member, John Guilding
John GuildingSoftware Developer
Headshot of WAX team member, Andrew Morris
Andrew MorrisSoftware Developer
Headshot of WAX team member, James Zaki
James ZakiProject Lead
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Wallet Account eXperiments (WAX) is part of Privacy & Scaling Explorations (PSE), a multidisciplinary team supported by the Ethereum Foundation. PSE explores new use cases for zero knowledge proofs and other cryptographic primitives.